Approximately 95% of the world’s plant species form mycorrhiza and require the association for maximum performance in the field.
Endomycorrhizae—also referred to as Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM)—symbiotically associate with about 90% of the plant kingdom. Their origins date back 350–460 million years and were important in the colonization of land by vascular plants. Endomycorrhizae form an intercellular attachment by penetrating the cell wall of plant roots and forming branched structures called arbuscules within the root cells. These arbuscules provide an extensive surface area for the exchange of nutrients through the cell membrane. Mycelia from endomycorrhizae extend from the plant roots into the surrounding soil, gathering nutrients and water bringing them back to the plant’s roots.