Dirt Hog: A hands on guide to raising pigs outdoors naturally by Kelly Klober

reviewed by Scott Hedley

Perhaps no other large animal enterprise offers as fast a turnaround on investment as hog raising. Range-raised pork is now sought out by the informed consumer concerned about issues of factory farming and willing to pay a premium to get a healthy, quality alternative.

Klober’s four step system is as follows. First, farrowing is done in a central area that is regularly cleaned and disinfected between farrowings. There is no continuous farrowing and thus no perpetual pool of very young and lactating animals that are often the epicenter of health problems. Second, soon after farrowing, the sows and litters are moved to pasture or wooded lots. Third, each group remains intact through weaning, and this is done by removing the sows and leaving the pigs in a familiar environment to reduce stress. Finally, pastures or lots are then kept free of hogs for at least 12 months to break the life cycles of most pathogenic organisms and parasites.

Klober likes hogs because in a seasonal production pattern, hogs can produce two litters of eight or more apiece each year. These pigs will grow quickly, producing several paydays each year. This book argues for raising hogs outdoors in order to greatly reduce the energy and facility costs.

Before starting to raise hogs, an initial assessment of the viability of a range or outdoor swine venture should ask the following: (1) Is labor available? (2) Will it compete directly with other ventures for available resources? (3) What are the available marketing outlets and options? (4) What kind of support infrastructure is available (e.g. vets, feed suppliers, seedstock sources, etc)? (5) Do you like working with hogs? (6) Is the family in accord on this venture?

Klober notes that the labor investment per year for a sow and her two litters is on the order of 20 hours or less. Klober also recommends establishing a loose network of area swine producers. As a group, they tend to hold suppliers in place and to draw more buyers to the area. They can often share the purchase of some inputs, and perhaps most important, they can provide each other valuable shared experiences and support.

Regarding fencing, the best choice for perimeter fence for hogs is a combination of woven and barbed wire. Also, a second electrified fence keeps the ani-mals back from groups of the same species contained in adjoining farms.

The single best place to buy a new hog is on the farm of origin. Klober lists several reasons for this: (1) You can see how the animal was produced. Facil-ities should be similar to yours, (2) You can view full- and half-siblings to see the strength and uniformity of the genetics, (3) You can view the breeding herd, including sire and dam, (4) It is probable that the small farmer working with limited numbers would value genetic depth and consistency, (5) You can visit with and get to know the producer, (6) The stress load on the animal will be much less if taken directly from the farm.

Veteran hog farmers recommend selecting replacement gilts only from their oldest sows. Their reasoning is that these females have had the time to build up the greatest levels of natural immunity to the “bug” mix on the home farm and to pass it on to their offspring. Also they are the most durable of the females.

Klober’s chapter on herd maintenance starts with a discussion of animal identification. The first choice for individual animal identification is ear tags. But ear notching is one of the oldest methods of swine identification and is the most long lasting. Herd records should include when the boar was introduced, exact breeding dates (if observed), ID of service sire, ration changes, health treatments, and general observations. In the days and weeks following birth, herd records would include losses during lactation, sow conditions, pig growth, and health care practices as they were delivered.

The book also has some marketing tips for those considering starting a hog business. First, have some really good business cards made for your farming operation. Second, develop some good letterhead and envelopes. Third, have a well designed road sign nearby. Fourth, prepare a simple one- to four-page, double fold flyer that potential customers can read over at home. Fifth, get the name, address, and phone number of every visitor to your farm and follow up with them after they visit. Sixth, cooperate with other local farmers to draw buyers to that area.

There were some weaknesses also in this book. The book had no glossary. A glossary would have been helpful for people like me who have never raised hogs before. The wagon wheel setup on page 42 had no information on measurements. No information was provided regarding how long the hogs are kept in the wagon wheel setup. Also is the wagon wheel setup really consistent with the author’s term free range?

Another weakness is the author’s suggestion of using soy feed supplements. There was no mention of the fact that most soy feed is genetically modified and there-fore dangerous to the health of the pig and to the consumer of the meat of that pig. Fagan, Antoniou, and Robinson (2014) note that GM soy had 27% higher levels of a major allergen, trypsin-inhibitor, than the non-GM parent variety. Also the GM soy was found to contain high residues of glyphosate (a known carcinogen ac-cording to the International Agency for Research on Cancer) and its breakdown product AMPA. Conventional and organic soybeans contained neither of these chemicals. Fagan et all (2014) gives a long list of other health hazards related to consuming GM food. Seralini et all (2014) also lists the health hazards of GM feed for animals. But not only is GM food harmful in many ways, the glyphosate used to produce GM feed causes the following problems: nutritional deficiencies, reproductive issues and increased risk to thyroid disease, kidney failure, cancer, tumors and early death. Glyphosate exposure also leads to an increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (Samsel & Seneff 2013).

But soy in general (whether organic or not) has been shown to reduce the assimilation of B12, calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, and zinc, and thus can stunt growth. High levels of soy have been linked to thyroid and autoimmune diseases. As if that were not enough, soy foods contain high levels of aluminum, which can be toxic to the nervous system and kidneys. For more information on the dangers of soy, visit www.westonprice.org.

An alternative to feeding hogs soy feed supplements would be for the farmer to raise feed him or herself organically or to purchase used, left-over hops from a nearby beer factory if there is one nearby. Some farmers sprout grains and peas for feed (Foreman 2010:176). Also Mikkelson (2005) explains how he produces GMO-free feed for his livestock.

However, anyone considering starting a small scale operation of outdoor hog raising should consider reading this book.

References and recommended reading

Fagan, John, Michael Antoniou, and Claire Robinson. 2014. GMO Myths and Truths. http://www.nongmoproject.org/learn-more/gmo-myths-and-truths/
Foreman, Patricia. 2010. City chicks: Keeping micro-flocks of chickens as garden helpers, compost creators, bio-recyclers, and local food suppliers. Buena Vista, VA: Good Earth Publications.
Leu, Andre. 2014. The Myths of Safe Pesticides. Austin, TX: Acres.
Mikkelson, Keith O. 2005. A Natural Farming System For Sustainable Agriculture In the Tropics. Palawan, Philippines: Aloha House Inc.
Samsel, A., & Seneff, S. 2013. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 6(4), 159–184. http://doi.org/10.2478/intox-2013-0026.
Seralini, Gilles-Eric, Emile Clair, Robin Mesnage, Steeve Gress, Nicolas Defarge, Manuela Malatesta, Didier Hennequin, and Joel Spiroux de Vendomois. 2014. Republished study: long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize. Environmental Sciences Europe 26:14.

The Art of Natural Cheesemaking

review by Rachel Scherer

Are your curds and whey subverting the dominant paradigm? The premise of David Asher’s book is that while bakers, brewers, and produce fermenteers have found their way to incorporating wild microorganisms into their formulary, cheesemakers are still largely dependent on freeze-dried cultures produced industrially.

The book’s foreword by Sandor Ellix Katz, author and evangelist for food fermentation, serves to introduce and/or remind the reader that fermenting milk is an old and honored way of preserving this nutrient dense food as yogurt, kefir or cheese. From there, Asher’s introduction makes it plain that the revival of home and artisanal cheesemaking in the US and Canada (his Black Sheep School of Cheesemaking is located in British Columbia) has uncritically accepted the use of industrial cultures, and neglected the rich history of cheesemaking with wild cultures.

This book is laid out much the same as other books on home or small-scale cheesemaking – chapters on milk, cultures and other ingredients, equipment, and aging, followed by chapters with step by step recipes. The differences between this book and the others on my shelf are in the extensive discussions of the way ingredients we commonly use are produced to yield very controlled and reproducible fermentations, and how to move from them into a natural ecology of cheese with more room for improvisation on the part of the maker and of the fermenting curds.

Asher’s recipes for the most part acknowledge a starting point from a yogurt, kefir, previous whey batch, or moldy cheese already in existence, and then propagating the resulting culture to make it totally local to the experimenter’s own kitchen. The process is not unlike maintaining sourdough starter or making pain au levain with a chunk of dough from the previous rising. My personal experience with starting cheeses with whey from the previous batch have been very successful in creating a distinctly different flavor profile than inoculating with freeze-dried culture each batch. Unfortunately, as a small scale commercial producer, I know from experience that the regulatory agencies in Massachusetts would not approve my longstanding yogurt and kefir cultures from a colleague’s Uzbeck grandmother, and since they require all fermented milk products sold to the public to begin with FDA approved cultures, there is a long haul ahead to get traditional natural cheesemaking approval. This is discussed quite frankly in the book, and David Asher admits to being a “guerrilla cheesemaker”.

The book fails in one matter that is common to many of its neighbors on the bookshelf: there is no discussion of how milk from different species and/or at different points in lactation requires different handling. The only differences attributed to milks are raw vs pasteurized/homogenized. Having only ever used raw milk, and often using non-commercial cultures, I was disappointed by the broad strokes used to characterize the foundational product, the milk.

That being said, this book is wonderfully written and therefore a pleasure to just read. As a technical manual the clear explanations seem easy to follow, and I look forward to trying the recipes. There is much here to learn for experienced as well as new milk fermenteers.

Harnessing the Earthworm

Reviewed by Julie Rawson

I am on an earthworm self-education binge right now, and when I start on such a binge I often find it helpful to go back into history a bit. For example, I am halfway through both of Weston A. Price’s Nutrition and Physical Degeneration and William Albrecht’s Foundation Concepts as I write this. Reading these authors who wrote from 70 – 100 years ago gives me an important perspective regarding our present day concerns about topics like climate change and carbon sequestration. I didn’t know until recently that Charles Darwin was a major force in our understanding of the earthworm and its role in agriculture and humus management. He spent 39 years studying the earthworm before he published The Formation of Vegetable Mould, Through the Action of Worms, with Observations on their Habitats in 1881, right before his death.

2myconThomas Barrett was born in 1884. He was a real Darwin fan, quoting the great scientist as saying, “It may be doubted whether there are many other animals which have played so important a part in the history of the world as have these lowly organized creatures.” And Barrett was a real earthworm fan, too. His book is divided into 2 parts – The Earthworm and Its Environment, and The Earthworm Under Control.

I found the first section of the book, The Earthworm and Its Environment, the most attractive and educational. Chapter one is on humus. “Humus is the end product of plant and animal life and must be created for current use from day to day and season to season,” according to Barrett. He speaks poetically of the single-celled yeast plant all the way to the giant sequoia eventually finding their way to the common burial place – the compost heap of nature. Barrett notes that the creation of humus from dead animal and vegetable matter usually takes from weeks to years with the notable exception that earthworms excrete humus. “Earthworms are the shock-troops of nature for the quick production of humus while she is waiting upon her slower processes,” says he.

Aristotle called earthworms the “intestines of the earth”. W L Powers, a Soil Scientist from Oregon State labeled them “colloid mills”. They produce the intimate chemical and mechanical homogenized mixture of fine organic and inorganic matter which forms their castings. In the alimentary canal the ingested materials undergo chemical changes, deodorization and neutralization, such that the resultant castings (manure) are a practically neutral humus, rich in water soluble plant food, and immediately available for plant nutrition.

According to Barrett, the earthworm is one of the strongest animals in nature for its size. Its body is formed by a series of from 200 to 400 muscular rings. “Thus everything that opposes itself to the blind attention of the earthworm becomes something to be devoured,” says Barrett. Here is how it works. The earthworm pushes itself through the soil, ingesting as it moves. All ingested material passes into the crop and then into the gizzard as a semi-liquid plastic mass. The grindstones of the gizzard, along with digestive juices similar to those found in human beings, act on the contents. A remarkable feature of the earthworm’s anatomy is the calciferous glands, located in the walls of the esophagus. They are unique to the earthworm. The liquid calcium that they secrete exerts its neutralizing action on the acids of the material that passes through the worm’s alimentary canal. Continuing with the digestive process, the material takes on valuable added elements from the intestines and urinary excretions. The end product is manure or castings.

Barrett enumerates the many values that worms provide to agriculture. Briefly, he mentions that they go deep into the subsoil and bring the minerals that are present there into the surface layers, and they greatly increase the air capacity of the soil and its water holding capacity. When their numbers are significant, they normalize pH, and increase calcium carbonate and nitrogen in the soil. The colloid humus content increases and the microbial life increases, and the nutrients in the soil are more highly water soluble and plant available. Finally, as a by-product of their castings production, resistance to pests and disease is enhanced in soils that are actively inhabited by earthworms. Barrett reminds us that the number of earthworms in a given environment is limited only by the amount of available food.

One of the most memorable parts of the book, for me, was the telling of a story by a friend of his about the friend’s grandfather’s farm in Ohio between the years of 1830 to 1890. This 160 acre farm boasted several paddocks that rotated between grain production, and pasture for mixed livestock. The barnyard, which opened into the paddocks, held oat and wheat straw stacks on raised covered platforms, for the livestock to eat during the winter and use as bedding. In the center of the barnyard was a compost pit that was fifty feet wide, 100 feet long and 2 feet deep. There were cables running between the barn and the pit attached to 12-15’ tall posts. Dump buckets from the barn were shuttled out to be dumped into the pit every day. From a spring nearby a flume was constructed to be used for adding water to the compost pit as needed. Chickens and ducks worked the pile throughout. At intervals, the farmer would add red clay in layers to the pile. When spring arrived, the compost (minus a starter of worms and compost for the next batch) was hauled away to the fields, and the compost and worms were ploughed into the field. The grandson’s job at this time was to shoot as many crows as he possibly could, because they came in the hundreds to devour as many worms as possible before they were ploughed into the soil! This farmer was renowned far and wide for his high quality crops, seed, livestock and ever more fertile soil.

The second half of the book talks about vermi-composting in more controlled settings like boxes in basements and/or shady outdoor locations (the author was from California). I found this section of the book not as intriguing, as a lot of the materials used in the process are not readily available now for possible replication. And, being a somewhat lazy farmer, my main interest in increasing worm populations on our farm is through appropriately worm-attractive practices in the field.

This book is short at 160 pages, and is an easy read. Some of the history in it is quite interesting, and Barrett’s ultimate enthusiasm for earthworms and their value is quite infectious. I leave you with the following quote: “We have written a book in an endeavor to create a mental picture of the most important animal in the world – the earthworm. When the question is asked, Can I build topsoil? The answer is ‘yes’. And when the first question is followed by a second question, ‘How can I do it?” the answer is ‘Feed the earthworms.’”

The Farm as Ecosystem: Tapping Nature’s Reservoir – Biology, Geology, Diversity

reviewed by Julie Rawson

This book is hot off the press. I am a person who regularly devours Jerry’s articles in Acres, USA because they are so information-packed, so positive spirited, so thoroughly researched, and always based in the practical on-farm application. Brunetti’s writing (and public speaking) is always something to be sought out by anyone who is involved with grass-based agriculture. This book goes one step further in that it is relevant for the vegetable grower, also.

Each of the 13 chapters takes a topic and discusses it at length including some deep scientific facts, some anecdotes about leaders in that particular area of science or its agricultural application, and some recipes for successful farm or garden management regarding that topic. Throughout there are recommendations for further research on any topic that piques the reader’s interest. The chapters are titled as follows – Soil as Supraorganism, The Mineral Nature of Soil, Trace Elements, The Biological Nature of Soil, Compost and Compost Tea, Foliar Nutrition, The Eternal Earthworm, Water: A Medium for Metamorphosis, System Acquired and Induced Systemic Resistance, Our Precious Pollinators and Predators, Cover Crops, The Tools of the Trade, and Back to the Future: a Permanent Agriculture.

There is way too much here to try to summarize, so let me just give you a couple of tastes.

Foliar nutrition is the subject of chapter 6. According to Brunetti, there are 5 primary advantages to foliar feeding;
enables rapid and efficient uptake of nutrients
provides nutrients in problem soils where there is limited biology, inhibiting the uptake of soil nutrients into the plant
minimizes the stress of weather extremes
incites Induced Activated Resistance – which is a grower’s way to stimulate a protective response in the plant
manipulates the metabolism of plants so that the growth or vegetative phase can be morphed into a reproductive phase when desired.

Cracks in the cuticle of the plant leaf, and also stomata, which are open in the cooler times of the day, are the entry points for foliar nutrition. This chapter discusses, along with leaf anatomy, timing for foliars (of the day and in the plant’s life), necessary physical characteristics of a successful mix, temperature parameters, and appropriate equipment to be used. Sticking agents and solution pH (finished tank between 5.0 and 6.0) are considerations to manage. Seaweed extracts, humic and fulvic acid, sea crop (a sea water product that has had most of the NaCl removed), blackstrap molasses and fish hydrolates are all components favored by the author.
I became a foliar fanatic about 4 years ago. Though I have been using mixes of commercially formulated fertility products, along with trace minerals, to good success, I have been on the search for the perfect homemade foliar spray. I think I found it here and will be using it regularly this summer. It features one of my favorite bio-accumulator plants, which I have growing all over our farm. It is comfrey.

cutaway leaf“Comfrey tea foliar can be produced by harvesting about twenty pounds of fresh leaves per 55 gallons of water. Add 10 pounds of compost or worm castings, 4 ounces of Epsom salts, 10 lbs of molasses, one ounce of sea salt and five gallons of milk. Let this all ferment in a vented container, stirring and shaking at least every couple of days for 3 weeks. Comfrey is very high in nitrogen because it is 25 percent or more protein. It’s loaded with macro and micro-nutrients as well as polysaccharides (long chain sugars) as a source of carbon. Strain and use as a soil drench or foliar at 3 to 4 ounces per gallon of water or 2-3% dilution.”

The lowly earthworm is the subject of Chapter 7. For good reason, Jerry has incredible respect and love for these creatures which he characterizes as a kind of hybrid between a chicken and a cow which sometimes acts like a “whale in the soil.”

Already convinced of their incredible capability to improve fertility, manage soil air and water, and build organic matter, in this chapter I was most interested in how to successfully increase the number of earthworms in a shovelful of dirt. Earthworms need an aerobic, cool, moist environment with adequate organic materials to flourish. They prefer soils with a pH between 5.5 and 8.5, and that has adequate calcium levels. That element is necessary for the mucus secretions of their calciferous gland. Direct contact with ammonia fertilizers (including slurry manure), insecticides, and tillage are hazardous to earthworms. A healthy soil food web that includes good numbers of protozoa will attract a strong earthworm population. Using alfalfa products as mulches, in compost teas, and as soil amendments will attract the protozoa that feed the worms.

An interesting fact that I learned in this chapter was that Charles Darwin studied earthworms for 39 years and published an important work on them in 1881. No scientist prior to Darwin had taken such an interest in earthworms, and many believed them to be vegetable pests that attacked plant roots as do parasitic nematodes.

Jerry’s love of earthworms is summed up in his closing words in this chapter – “…earthworms may provide answers for many of our challenges associated with topsoil conservation, feeding the hungry, recycling all of our biological wastes, preserving our watersheds, decontaminating toxins, restoring damaged landscapes, and providing a low cost feed for poultry (worms are rich in quality amino acids, fats, vitamins, and minerals). And there’s even the potential for cottage industries that can sell fish worms, compost worms, worm castings, and vermitea. Long live the earthworm.”

This tome is a textbook, a storybook, a practical how-to manual, and an inspiring call to action all in one wrapper. Jerry’s love of science, nature, farming, and humankind is a constant throughout the book. That enthusiasm kept me going until the end. Even during those periods where it got too “deep” for me to understand, I could always count on a return to practicality and lessons for me to put into place on our farm in 2014.

Queens Sugar

Reviewed by Elizabeth Gabriel

Queen SugarQueens Sugar is a relaxing, enjoyable, and also heartbreaking story of a family and a sugar cane farm in Louisiana. The main character, Charley Bordelon, is a widowed single mother, who moves from Los Angeles back to her tiny hometown, Saint

Josephine, Louisiana with her daughter, Micah, after her father left her his 800-acre sugarcane farm in a trust. Saint Josephine is the kind of southern town that feels stuck in the past, where people grow up and never leave its borders, where the bartenders know directions to everybody’s house, and where you need to be cautious if you’re a black man driving the roads at night.

Baszile seamlessly integrates a story of this Southern family with a story of running a farm and creating a relationship with the land. Each main character, most of whom are Charley’s family members, is a pleasure to get to know, each depicting a Southern charm and kindness that warms one’s heart. Violet, the beautiful cousin who is married to a Reverend, is spunky and direct, and Charley’s biggest fan. Miss Honey, the grandmother who opens her home to Charley and Micah, quotes scripturein her daily conversation and shows her love for people by cooking pork chops, pies, and cookies. Hollywood, another cousin, who is happy to spend his days mowing lawns and cleaning people’s yards, looks out for Charley from the moment she arrives. You learn that each one suffered tremendous pain and loss in their life and it leaves you wishing you could hug each of them and sit with them on the porch swing, in silence, listening to the sound of the cicadas.

As I get to know Charley, it’s easy to feel a kin- ship to her – to her struggles as a woman farming in a man’s world, to the tremendous learning curve she faces to understand soil, cane varieties, tractor mechanics and everything else a farmer needs to know, and to her exhaustion as she tries to balance her new life as a farmer with her dedication to being a mother.

What’s impossible for me to relate to is her experience as a black woman farmer in the South. She’s verbally abused at the tractor auction by another farmer. After she loses most of her crop in a hurricane, she’s denied loan after loan from all the banks within 100 miles. When her brother goes missing, Miss Honey worries he’ll be shot if they call the police to help find him. While the book is fiction, sadly, this part of the story line is nonfiction.

What I enjoyed most about Queens Sugar are the detailed portrayals of how Charley learns the insand outs of running the farm. Denton, who Charley hires to manage the farm, teaches matter-of-factly; you “give the cane your final Amen” and then you “stand back and let Mother Nature take over”, he tells Charley. He has her taste the soil to learn about its mineral contents, he shows her which plants are the “tie vines” (morning glory), which will tie up the cane and keep it from growing, and he shows her how to identify if the cane has borers “which take the sucrose from the inside” and can ruin the whole crop. We learn from Denton that in the 1800s, farmers named their fields after their daughters – a tradition that warms any parent’s soul – and Charley promptly names her backfield “Micah’s corner”.

While Queens Sugar has intense moments of devastation, overall, I found it uplifting and beautiful.

It was a quick read, because with each passing page that didn’t talk about the farm, I kept wanting to continue to find out if she saves the cane crop, if she lets her brother work with her, or if she is forced to sell the farm to the cane coop all the small farmers despise.

Elizabeth is the editor of The Natural Farmer and co-owns Wellspring Forest Farm in upstate NY.

Making Love While Farming: Field Guide to a Life of Passion and Purpose

review by Bob Banning

Making Love while FarmingRicky Baruch and Deb Habib have been making love while farming for over thirty years.

You’re thinking, they must be great multitaskers. Also, they have a lot more stamina than we do.

Once you get into the book, you realize that although as farmers Deb and Ricky do need to keep track of a lot of tasks, and although “making love,” in the usual sense of the phrase, actually is one of those tasks, having sex while doing farming chores is not what the book’s title means. You also learn that, far from letting the multitude of tasks make them anxious or distracted, they are probably two of the most focused people you’ll encounter.

As for stamina, they do work as long and hard as necessary to keep well-considered promises but also strive tirelessly for balance, so as to care for themselves and thereby preserve their ability to care for other people and all other beings in their sphere. In fact, to the extent that they have pushed the limits of their endurance, they have done so, according to the book, in order to help other people pursue that same balance that they themselves are pursuing. And Making Love While Farming serves that same mission.

The book is both a memoir and a kind of self-help book. As a memoir, it narrates how the authors have learned and grown throughout their lives as they have strived to “grow food everywhere” organically, justly, and locally, for themselves and others. This story includes the history several enterprises they’ve founded in order to empower others to create a life aligned with their deepest values. Woven throughout is the story of Ricky and Deb’s spiritual journey—and journeys: both together and as individuals they have practiced deep listening so as to discern and honor the sacred in themselves, each other, all people they encounter, and the land and all its creatures. Episodes of the story make up the first of each of the book’s eight chapters.

The second part of each chapter is the how-to part, fulfilling the promise of the book’s subtitle, that the book would be a Field Guide to a Life of Passion and Purpose. Each field guide section offers questions and recommended “practices” for those who want to go on the “journey of a self-created life.” The practices include both productive movement and stillness. Ricky and Deb have found that in order to cultivate balance in yourself and others and to set and passionately pursue goals truly aligned with your heart’s deepest values, you need to frequently be quiet and listen to your heart. For Deb, this has involved yoga; for Ricky, meditation informed by reading of various spiritual masters. Each day, having centered through stillness, they seek to maintain the heart/value connection during the workday by frequently incorporating rituals and acknowledgment of the sacred into farming tasks.

The chapters are so packed with details and insights that they’re hard to summarize. The best way for me to serve readers may be to enumerate a few specific ways that Deb and Ricky have sought to fulfill their mission and then suggest at how these activities have “made love.”

In 1996 the authors bought the land in Orange that would become their farm. The farm became the home base for reaching out to others in various ways to spread the joy of “a life of passion and purpose” through growing good food and eating it together. The authors have taught apprentices how to farm, welcomed children onto the farm for visits, helped area schools start and maintain school gardens, and led workshops for adults. An important service to area youth has been the SOL (Seeds of Leadership) Garden. Deb and Ricky had learned that in their new community “there was no shortage of need to guide youth towards positive activities,” and by teaching the youth to garden during weekly visits throughout each spring, they enabled them to learn valuable skills and grow in respect for themselves and others.

In 1999 they founded the North Quabbin Garlic and Arts Festival in Orange, Massachusetts, which the event website calls “a celebration of the artistic, agricultural, and cultural bounty of the region.” In recent years the festival has attracted 10,000 people, who, because of the organizers’ devotion to recycling and composting, generate a total of three (3) bags of trash.

As I read, I enjoyed pondering what “making love” means to the authors and what it can mean for all of us, in the biggest sense. Certainly one thing it means is sex, and Deb and Ricky are not shy about recommending sex as the joyful work of paying loving attention and honor to another person’s body. But as the story progresses, the meaning of the book’s title ramifies in many interesting directions, because making love, in the sense of generating love, is what the authors are trying to do in all their relationships—with those they teach, with their neighbors, with their community allies, and with the people and other creatures who collaborate with them in various enterprises. Including the earthworms under the cardboard—“the worms’ perfect singles bar.”

Ricky and Deb realize that strong love requires a sense of humor, and this comes across in the way they tell many episodes of their story. They know that love means taking risks on people, and then learning from the results, whether positive or negative. And they know that love is always looking for reasons to be grateful, sometimes to people and sometimes to “the universe” or whatever force caused something good or beautiful to happen that one had not planned or did not deserve. And so along with gratitude, love needs humility.

Making Love While Farming makes me want to be a better lover. And also, more than ever, to go to the next edition of the Garlic & Arts Festival, September 28-29. See you there?


The Wildcrafting Brewer: Creating Unique Drinks and Boozy Concoctions from Nature’s Ingredients

review by Sanne Kure-Jensen

wildcraftingIf you love home brewing, gardening, eating or drinking, Pascal Baudar’s newest book is for you. “The Wildcrafting Brewer” offers a look at food preservation from an uncommon perspective. Baudar applied common techniques like pickling, canning, dehydrating and fermenting to preserving local wild and cultivated plants. Glorious color photos accompany Baudar’s tales and recipes.

Foodies and craft brew aficionados will be inspired to sample exotic fermented foods and beverages. Experienced and novice brewers, food preservationists and survivalists can try new ingredient combinations. Gardeners will plan their “brewing gardens.” Bauder includes historical background on many ingredients and shares entertaining tales of failures and successes in recipe development. He claims success with over 150 wild ingredients in his “wild beers and other fermented concoctions” including barks, berries, flowers, grains, seeds, leaves, roots and flowers.

One cannot discuss fermentation without mentioning yeast. “The Wildcrafting Brewer” devotes a whole chapter to yeast, a fungus that converts sugars into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. Yeast and fungal spores are everywhere. 1,500 yeasts have been identified so far. Good sources for natural yeasts are:

  • Organic local grapes with a white bloom
  • Wild grapes
  • Organic gingerroot (Chinese gingerroot does not work; it may have been irradiated)
  • Fresh wild juniper berries (select edible varieties)
  • Elderberries or elderflowers
  • Blueberries
  • Blackberries
  • Fresh figs
  • Prickly pear cactus fruits
  • Tree bark (collect responsibly in late spring: birch, yellow birch or aspen)
  • Raw honey (unheated)

Avoid chemically treated or irradiated fruit. Wash fruits before use. Baudar advises novice fermenters or those uncomfortable with gathering wild yeast to begin experimenting with commercial yeasts.

  • Beer yeast for regular and wild beer recipes
  • Champagne yeast for sodas
  • Wine yeast for blueberries, elderberries and other wild berries

If a recipe calls for boiling ingredients, a yeast starter is needed to reintroduce yeast to the cooled liquid or “wort.”
Using commercial yeast instead of wild yeast typically yields beverages with higher alcohol contents. Baudar advises against brewing with bread yeast unless you want a beverage that tastes like bread.

Sweeteners for feeding yeast could be tree sap, honey, molasses, fruit juices, malted grains or even insect honeydew.

Boiling fruit juice or unripe green pinyon pine cones concentrates their sugars into syrup. When boiled further, syrup becomes a thick “molasses.” Baudar describes making his own “wild brown sugar” with molasses made from blueberries, dates, blackberries and elderberries. Adding lemon juice helps preserve homemade molasses.

The Flavor chapter admits to being incomplete as there are too many possibilities and combinations to list from the author’s southern California neighborhood and globally. Baudar’s rule of thumb is: use “bitter flavors… for beers [and] sweet and fruity flavors for sodas.” He admits to making exceptions and that many of his creations have “murky” classifications.

About a millennium ago, herb flavored beers or gruits were flavored with mugwort, yarrow, ground ivy, dandelion, rue and other herbs. In the 15th century, German law declared that “beer” could only contain water, grains and hops. They forgot to mention yeast.

In beer, hops act as a preservative and antiseptic. When mixed with alcohol, hops act as a relaxing sedative. Hops are in the Cannabis family and are related to hemp and marijuana.

Baudar breaks beers into five basic categories based on their ingredients. Meads can be broken into at least 20 categories. Changing the proportions of the same ingredient list can change a soda into a beer or change the category within a beverage type. Baudar’s favorite soda blend is mugwort, pinyon pine and pear.

Growing your own brewing garden is a great way to ensure a steady supply of your favorite ingredients. Baudar describes several herbal drying techniques from simple, inexpensive techniques like hanging herbs in a paper bag to using an electric dehydrator.

Brewing techniques can vary from steeping, cold brewing or hot brewing. Fragile aromatic herb flavors are often damaged by boiling so they are cold brewed or added late in the brewing or fermenting process.

Fermentation vessels and other equipment are thoroughly explained and illustrated. Baudar prefers natural carbonation from yeast rather than adding carbon dioxide gas. Under pressure, carbon dioxide is absorbed back into the liquid. When the pressure is released, lids may pop and bubbles fizz to the surface. Baudar shares tales of exploding jars of green pinyon pine syrup as an important lesson on why to use an airlock or a loose-fitting lid so concoctions do not explode during active fermentation.

As fermenters’ experience grows, Baudar recommends experimenting with a local “terrior” brew using bark, cones and mushrooms (safe varieties) from nearby forests, scrub areas, fields and/or gardens.

“The Wildcrafting Brewer” contains historical backgrounds and recipes for wines, meads and sodas. Baudar also includes ethnic beverages, bread and fruit kvass as well as medicinal brews.

The book’s Resource List includes reference books covering American and regional plants and ingredients.

Baudar advises pregnant women to defer experimenting with alcoholic beverages or teas made with herbs like horehound, wormwood, licorice, mugwort, yarrow until after their child is born. Experimenters should “start with something they actually know is not poisonous or unhealthy…a successful starter should smell good too.”

“The Wildcrafting Brewer” is an excellent follow-up to Baudar’s first book “The New Wildcrafted Cuisine: Exploring the Exotic Gastronomy of Local Terroir” released in 2016 by Chelsea Green Publishing.

Read about Pascal Baudar at www.chelseagreen.com/writer/pascal-baudar. Based in greater Los Angeles, California, Baudar continues his work as a wild-food researcher, wild brewer and food preservation instructor. His classes and seminars have introduced thousands of home cooks, chefs and foodies to Nature’s magical flavors. Find a schedule of Baudar’s upcoming programs at http://urbanoutdoorskills.com/schedule.html.

The Pollinator’s Corridor

reviewed by Vidya Tikku

Set in the Bronx of the 1970’s landlord fires, The Pollinator’s Corridor follows the lives of three teenage friends who attempt to convince wild bees and butterflies to cross the Bronx by planting ‘corridors’ of native flora throughout the industrial wasteland. Connecting fragmented forests, watersheds and city parks, our heroes restore biodiversity to the blighted ghetto by uniting marginalized communities and laying the foundations of ecological health in an age of crisis and decline.

The story is especially relevant today where a lack of environmental leaders in the political world catalyzes concerned and caring individuals and communities to take action in their own spheres of influence, making change where they can and when they can. They reflect Birk’s mantra of resisting by action in your own work, refusing to stop the daily actions in your own life and finding inspiration in your creation, a pollinator’s greenway in this case.

This imagined greenway for the pollinators navigates a challenging urban landscape to create a new prototype that can be real in its ecological composi-tion. A unique combination of art and prose set against a rebellion against accepting the conventional and oft-described urban decay, Birk paints a hopeful and imaginative tool for urban design, rooted in science and biology.

The Pollinator’s Corridor captures the daily lives and aspirations of city residents who share the varying yet common thread of a vision for green urbanity — a vision that’s painted in their imaginations as an environ unabashedly urban yet used at a thrumming pace not just by its human inhabitants but by our pollinators. The book’s evocative illustrations capture the imagination of its characters that are working within their daily lives to paint that picture. Birk’s characters are representative of any or all of us – from the woman jumping into her local YMCA pool at the end of a tiring day to the artist looking for a yet bigger canvas, all looking for nooks and crannies, waterfronts and vacant lands, to plant the seeds that will welcome the pollinating communities into the city.

Inhabit: A Permaculture Perspective (documentary film)

Inhabit Film reviewTotal Run Time: 92 minutes (Additional scenes, 60 min., not reviewed)
Optional subtitles: English, Spanish, and French
available from: www.INHABITFILM.com $20.00
reviewer Alan Eddy, NOFA member, Wallingford, CT

This documentary is an introduction to permaculture for the general public, and speaks eloquently to the point of permaculture as a ray of hope in our world.

About eighteen people are interviewed about their work producing perennial crops, caring for livestock, preventing erosion, recycling nutrients, building soil and sequestering carbon, and restoring ecosystems. The film is divided into SUBURBS, CITIES, and FARMS. The film covers primarily the Northeastern and Midwestern U. S., with a glimpse of California. Permaculturist Ben Falk provides an introduction. The plants that are most benefi-cial for the land are also most beneficial for humans. Plants are a reverse carbon conveyor belt — taking carbon out of the air and putting it in the soil. Raising livestock helps regenerate degraded farm land. “Farm the water first, then the soil.”

SUBURBS: The permaculturists interviewed are — Eric Toensmeier, Lisa Fernandes, Lisa DePiano, and Steve Whitman. There is a short sequence about composting toilets and another about using bicycle trailers to collect compost and recycling. Scenes are included of neighbors working together to implement permaculture designs. Multiple edible crops can be grown together in a small yard. The pawpaw, Asimina triloba, is an edible fruit native to North America and frequently mentioned in North American folklore.

CITIES: The people included are — Dwaine Lee, Andrew Faust, Paula Amram, Ari Rosenberg, Luis Sanchez, and Pandora Thomas. Topics include: growing food crops on rooftops, capturing rainwater from sloped roofs, planting neighborhood gardens and rain gardens in conjunction with local residents, and providing job opportunities for urban dwellers and ex-offenders. The potential of the urban landscape will surprise you!

FARMS: In this segment the experts are — Michael Phillips (2017 NOFA Conference keynoter), Keith Morris, Steve Gabriel, Rhamis Kent, Susana Kay Lein, and Mark Shepard. There is a sequence about growing shitake mushrooms on logs in a forest setting (the main pests are slugs, which are controlled by foraging ducks). Susana Kay Lein plants grain crops in succession without any tillage — an idea from Japan (The One Straw Revolution). New Forest Farm in Wis-consin replicates the “oak savanna” of ancient mammoths and bison — a fantastically productive habitat.

I grew up in the 1960s when environmentalists were saying: “humans are bad — we are a planetary disease.” This film says: “wait a minute — it doesn’t have to be that way. Humans CAN be good.” We can not only sustain ecosystems but we can restore and regenerate them as well. Scenes with children are prominent in the film!

In 1979, I received a B. S. degree in Horticulture from Michigan State University and began joining organizations in order to explore new ideas: The Maine Or-ganic Farmers and Gardeners Association, The Bio-Integral Resource Center (an IPM group in CA), The New Alchemy Institute, and the Biodynamic Farming As-sociation. I read about permaculture but did not follow up at that time. Then followed a period of working in the field of green architecture (earning paychecks and paying bills). In April of 2016, I attended a session of the Environmental Film Series put on by two activists at our public library. The film was Inhabit: A Permaculture Perspective. As the documentary unfolded, I thought: “this is what I have been searching for.”

Dirt to Soil: One Family’s Journey into Regenerative Agriculture

review by Jack Kittredge

As many readers of The Natural Farmer know, Gabe Brown is the conventional North Dakota diversified farmer who learned the hard way how to transform a degraded, failing farm into a healthy, profitable one using the power of nature. This book is the “tell all” story of his journey.

Gabe learned farming by working eight years with his father-in-law on a 1760 acre grain and beef ranch which was heavily tilled and herbicided, with the cattle subject to multiple vaccinations and pour-on insecticides. By the time Gabe and his wife Shelly purchased the home farm, Gabe was seriously concerned about these practices and particularly the condition of the soil. Their organic matter ranged from 1.7 to 1.9 percent, in an area of the upper Great Plains that had once boasted 7 to 8 percent. Water infiltrated at the rate of half an inch per hour, not fast enough to retain much of the only 16 inches of precipitation that fell there each year.

For the first few years after taking over the farm, not knowing what else he could do, Gabe continued the tillage, fertilizers and herbicides his in-laws had used. But then a farming friend suggested that no-till was saving him time and moisture and that Gabe should try it. But he cautioned Gabe: “If you do go no-till, sell all of your tillage equipment so you are not tempted to go back.”

Gabe couldn’t afford a no-till drill without doing that so he sold all his tillage stuff and bought the drill. The first year of no-till was fantastic, Gabe recalls. Not only did yields go up, but he was able to reduce nitrogen fertilizer costs by adding field peas to the crop rotation. The next year Brown’s spring wheat crop was devastated by a hail storm. The calves were unharmed, but with an operating loan and a mortgage, finances were very tight. Two years later another hail storm and a major medical diagnosis for their daughter forced both Gabe and Shelly to take off-farm jobs.

The “disaster years” continued for the Browns a couple more years, but like Job, he persevered and never lost faith. He kept learning, deciding to adopt a Savory grazing system, moving the cows to a winter foraging system because he couldn’t afford the twine to bale his hay, and suddenly noticed a large number of earthworms in the soil where previously he couldn’t find any. He knew he was on the right track. In the 20 years since the disasters Gabe has become a major spokesperson for what he calls regenerative agriculture.

More than half the book is devoted to the Brown Ranch story, disasters, changes, and all. The rest talks about applying what Gabe has learned to other situations. He in convinced that these lessons will work anywhere because they are the way nature works.

The five principles of soil health, according to Brown, are:
• limit disturbance – mechanical, chemical, physical
• armor – keep soil covered at all times
• diversity – strive for a diverse mix of plants, animals, and microbes
• living roots – keep plants alive in the soil as long as possible throughout the year
• integrate animals – they are necessary for a healthy, natural ecosystem

There is far more information in this book than I can describe, but I think any farmer will find it fascinating. Toward the end of the book Gabe discusses other farms which are also adapting regenerative agriculture – in Australia, Kansas, North Carolina, Alberta, Texas, Saskatchewan, and Montana – and succeeding. There is no simple formula, and these folks are also looking to creative marketing and diverse products to protect against downturns. But the key, he repeats, is first seeing the power of nature and understanding the farmer has to learn how to work with it.

Herbal Antibiotics, 2nd edition: Natural Alternatives for Treating Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Herbal Antibiotics cover2012, 467 pages, softback, $24.95
review by Gregory Luckman

Recently, I wrote a review of Buhner’s Herbal Antivirals that appeared in the Spring 2020 issue of The Natural Farmer. Readers of that review may well have noticed that Herbal Antivirals was hardly a new book. Published in 2013, it was already seven years old. The 2nd edition of Herbal Antibiotics (hereinafter I will drop the 2nd edition specification) tops that: Published in 2012, a year before Herbal Antivirals, it is already eight years old. My justification for the earlier review was that a viral pandemic, now called COVID-19, was gathering force around the world at the time of submission of that review (end of January 2020), so it was appropriate to bring anew to readers’ attention a book that, among other topics, did in fact describe an herbal approach to treating a coronavirus, albeit an older coronavirus that caused an illness known as SARS.

So, what is my justification for reviewing Buhner’s 2012 Herbal Antibiotics at this time, given that my beginner status in herbal medicine has not changed? COVID-19 is due to a virus, not a bacterium. What does a book on herbal approaches to bacterial infections have to do with that? In response, I direct your attention to statements in a 2008 article in the CDC Journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases, titled “Deaths from Bacterial Pneumonia during 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic.” At one point in their article, the authors write,
“Care providers and experts of the day [1918-1919] in epidemiology, pathology, bacteriology, and infectious diseases clearly concurred that pneumonias from secondary bacterial infections caused most deaths during the pandemic.”

To be clear, no one doubts today that the original influenza of 1918-1919 was viral, not bacterial. So antibiotics would not have been effective against the original flu strain. But the concept of “secondary bacterial infection” suggests that although the original influenza could kill by itself, it was more often a “gateway” illness, weakening the immune system and enabling the deadly bacterial pneumonias. And influenza was not unique in this characteristic. Speaking of measles in nineteenth century England, Anne Hardy, in The Epidemic Streets writes:
“Mild in itself, it [measles] can assume a life-threatening form in certain circumstances, in ‘virgin-soil’ populations, and in the severely undernourished. It also predisposes sufferers to secondary bacterial infections, which may result in permanent hearing and respiratory injury. . . Bronchitis and broncho-pneumonia are damaging (and the latter often fatal) sequelae.”

It could be that coinfections are the norm rather than the exception in deadly diseases.

As I write this (end of April 2020) not enough is known about COVID-19 to say what role secondary bacterial infections might play in the disease’s lethality. However, the frequent use in the press of the phrases, “COVID-19 related” and “complications of COVID-19” make me suspicious. But for sure, until such time as secondary bacterial infections, especially those due to increasingly common antibiotic-resistant bacteria, can be ruled out as important contributors to COVID-19-related deaths, a look anew at a book that covers herbal treatments of resistant bacteria, fungi, and protists is, in my opinion, timely just as, in my opinion, the review of Herbal Antivirals was timely. In addition, the issue of antibiotic resistance is not just about the current pandemic. COVID-19 might go away, but as long as we have CAFOs and over-prescription of antibiotics, the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria will be with us and will likely only get worse.

One might reasonably regard Herbal Antibiotics and Herbal Antivirals as a two volume set, with Herbal Antibiotics being the first volume and therefore the volume tasked with the greater burden of providing an overview of the topics both books address. The two books not only have similar titles and have the same author and same publisher, they actually almost look alike with similar cover designs. They also have a similar organization. Consequently, I will skip many of the introductory observations for Herbal Antibiotics that are duplications of remarks I made for Herbal Antivirals and simply refer you to my earlier review in the Spring 2020 issue of The Natural Farmer. Many of my remarks in the earlier review really apply to both books.

I would like to start with three caveats, all of which apply to both books, but which I did not state before.

First, on the copyright page of both books is the disclaimer,

“This publication is intended to provide educational information for the reader on the covered subject. It is not intended to take the place of personalized medical counseling, diagnosis, and treatment from a trained health professional.”

Similarly, just as I am not a trained herbalist, I am also not a medical professional. My book review is for the information of readers only and it is not intended as medical advice.

The second caveat is perhaps anticipated by a paragraph written by Buhner himself in his discussion of echinacea in the chapter of Herbal Antibiotics entitled “The First Line of Defense: Strengthening the Immune System.” He writes,

“Echinacea is not an immune tonic; it is an immune stimulant. Continued immune stimulation in instances of immune depletion to avoid necessary rest or more healthy lifestyle choices will always result in a more severe illness than if the original colds and flus were allowed to progress. Echinacea should not be used if you are getting sick a lot and are only using echinacea to stave off illness without using the time gained to heal the immune system itself through deep healing and recuperation.”

And critical among healthy lifestyle choices, of course, is healthy nutrition. Despite silence on the issue by public health authorities, my personal view is that healthy nutrition is likely to be more important than frequent hand-washing, wearing masks in public, or so-called social distancing in dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic or with future pandemics. The point is that healthy nutrition and healthy living are the real first line of defense. Even the best of herbal remedies are supportive. I do not think that I need to dwell on this in a book review for readers of The Natural Farmer. But I can assure you that I do not mean to dismiss the primacy of nutrition and other lifestyle factors even though I do not discuss them in reviews of Buhner’s books. And, by the way, echinacea is not even among the most potent of the herbal remedies Buhner discusses.

The third caveat is that many medicinal herbs may well be borderline toxic and can be outright toxic if they are not used properly. This issue shows up in Buhner’s discussion of the berberine-containing plants in the chapter of Herbal Antibiotics entitled “Herbal Antibiotics: The Localized Nonsystemics,” to wit:
“There is a tendency, because of the berberine plants’ poor absorption across the intestinal mucosa, to increase the dose of the plants substantially to try to get more into the bloodstream. This is a very bad idea. Abdominal cramping, nervous tremors, and, most importantly, excessive drying of the mucous membranes will occur at high doses. Do not attempt to use these herbs as systemics.”

In other words, damage to the GI tract will occur long before a therapeutic dose of the berberine plants’ constituents is reached in the bloodstream. So the caveat is, there can be problems due to overdoses. Use herbal medicines with care, only in ways that long experience has shaped to provide an understanding of their appropriate use. Statements analogous to the above quote about the berberines occur for several of the plants mentioned in each book. The occurrence of such statements is a notable feature of both books: warnings on what not to do as well as guidance on what to do for the safe usage of herbal medicine.

In Herbal Antibiotics, the foreword to the first edition (1999) by James Duke, PhD. that is reprinted in the second edition, the preface to the second edition, the prologue (titled “Rise of the Superbugs”), and Chapter 1 (titled “The End of Antibiotics”) all function to provide an overview of what the world is facing with antibiotic resistance and emerging superbugs.

Chapter 2, “The Resistant Organisms, the Diseases They Cause, and How to Treat Them,” corresponds to Chapters 2 through 4 of Herbal Antivirals. It starts with ten more pages of overview of what the world is facing, then zooms in to enumerate the types of resistant organisms, divided into three main categories: Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and non-bacterial organisms.

Gram-positive bacteria are those whose stain in labs in the Gram stain retain a violet color and have a thick cell wall.

The five types of Gram-positive bacteria considered are, in alphabetical order, Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus species. The thirteen types of Gram-negative bacteria considered are, in alphabetical order: Acinetobacter baumannii, Campylobacter jejuni, pathogenic E. coli strains, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Proteus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella species, Serratia marcescens, Shigella species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Vibrio cholerae. The non-bacterial organisms are Candida species, Plasmodium species (the causative agents of malaria), and Aspergillus species.

Wow! That’s quite a list. Many of the names are widely familiar to the public, especially as foodborne pathogens. Some of the pathogens that are not familiar are likely to be associated with hospital-acquired infections, relevant to the person in the hospital for COVID-19 or for anything else. For each of the twenty-one types of organisms, Chapter 2 provides proposed formulations, dosages, and frequencies of administration of specific herbal remedies. The majority of formulations seem to be tinctures, but there are also some infusions, decoctions, poultices, and essential oil preparations. This manner of presentation might be confusing to someone not familiar with herbal medicine who is reading the book through for the first time from start to finish. The designation, “formulation,” is cryptic to a beginner. One needs to know that the formulations are described in more detail only later in the book, in the sections on individual herbs.

Chapter 3, “About Herbal Antibiotics,” starts with an overview, but this time of medicinal herbs rather than of the emerging resistant organisms. The chapter is only ten pages long, but I believe it contains the essence of the difference in philosophy between Western medicine and the evolving outlook on medicine by much of the world outside of the United States and Western Europe. Much of the world, Buhner suggests, have realized that they cannot rely on a “pharmaceutical/technological medical model as their primary approach to health care.” This leads to research seriously looking for the best plants for any application and for the optimum preparation of those plants for maximum effectiveness. By contrast, in the U.S. researchers often (although not always) assume that an herbal approach is primitive and thus inferior, and present dismissive accounts of herbal medicine based on experiments that are sometimes superficial.

Chapters 4 through 7 of Herbal Antibiotics correspond to Chapters 5 and 6 of Herbal Antivirals, being organized around lists of herbs with specific properties and around specific uses of those herbs. Chapter 4, “Herbal Antibiotics: The Systemics,” discusses Buhner’s choice of five herb genera, a therapeutic subset of whose constituents can cross the intestinal membrane and circulate in the bloodstream throughout the body. This property is essential when treating resistant infections that are similarly spread throughout the body. The five herb genera are Cryptolepis, Sida, Alchornea, Bidens, and Artemisia. Cryptolepis, Sida and Alchornea all appear to be particularly broad-spectrum in their actions. Sida and Bidens are considered to be invasive species. By contrast, Alchornea is not readily available in the Western world. Buhner states, “Part of the point of listing this wonderful plant here is to stimulate suppliers to import it or for gardeners [or organic farmers? Don’t forget the organic farmers!] to begin planting it in the United States.

Chapter 5, “Herbal Antibiotics: The Localized Nonsystemics,” discusses Buhner’s choice of medicinals that contain constituents that one should assume cannot cross the intestinal membrane, but that can be very effective within the GI tract or for skin infections. These include the berberine-containing plants that Buhner refers to as the Berberines, the junipers, Usnea, and organic wildflower honey. Several of the Berberines are considered to be invasive.

Chapter 6, “Herbal Antibiotics: The Synergists,” covers plants which might have some anti-bacterial properties of their own, but whose primary action is to increase the effectiveness of other medicinal plants. They do this through several mechanisms that Buhner describes. He briefly mentions 19 different plants, many of which are common garden plants or culinary herbs. He then goes into more detail on three plants in particular: licorice, ginger, and black pepper/piperine.

The notion of synergy between plants seems to me to be an example of the notion of “as below, so above.” Pathogenic organisms are thought not to develop resistance to medicinal plants the way that such organisms develop resistance to antibiotics because the plants use many different secondary compounds, not just one “active ingredient.” It is harder for a pathogen to evolve around many different control mechanisms than around the control mechanism of one active ingredient. Synergy between two plants extends this notion, with two or more plants contributing complementary collections of secondary compounds.

Chapter 7, “The First Line of Defense: Strengthening the Immune System,” resembles Chapter 6 of Herbal Antivirals, except that there are eight herbs listed rather than three. They are, in alphabetical order, Ashwaganda, Astragalus, Boneset, Echinacea, Eleuthero, Red Root, Reishi, and Rhodiola.

The discussion of each of the herbs in Chapters 4 through 7 is extensive, including sections on which parts of the plant are used, preparation and dosage, side effects, herb-herb and herb-drug interactions, habitat and appearance, cultivation and collection, medical properties, commercial sources, plant chemistry, traditional uses, and finally, in smaller type font, a description of studies that Buhner found in the worldwide scientific literature. (OK, I did cut and paste most of this paragraph from my review of Herbal Antivirals. But there is a reason for this. The presentation of herbs in the two books is identical, and in both cases, seemingly encyclopedic.)

In Herbal Antivirals there is a twenty-one page appendix on herbal medicine making. Buhner openly states that the appendix is condensed from a more extensive discussion in Herbal Antibiotics, 2nd edition. Well, here it is: Chapter 8, “A Handbook of Herbal Medicine Making,” a forty-seven page discussion.

Some topics such as water infusions and decoctions, alcohol tinctures, and herbal medicine for children are copied almost verbatim into the Herbal Antivirals appendix. What is included in Herbal Antibiotics Chapter 8 that the appendix of Herbal Antivirals lacks is a discussion of harvesting and storing plants, a broader array of water extraction applications such as washes, steams, evaporative concentrates, and percolations; a broader array of alcohol or related substance extractions; oil infusions; salves; lotions; essential oils; and a section on using whole herbs.

In general, these extended topics leave me with the impression that the full Chapter 8 is more suited for the professional herbalist who is more likely to have occasion first to wildcraft or grow herbs and second to use them in a practice extending beyond her or his own family needs. The common topics are nevertheless enough to get the do-it-yourselfers started. For those who would prefer to buy rather than make their own, there is a resource list. As I stated in the earlier review, there are now additional suppliers, some of whom have recently been appearing as vendors at NOFA summer and winter conferences over the past year and a half.

The concerns I expressed about Herbal Antivirals in my earlier review apply as well to Herbal Antibiotics, and there is no need to repeat them here. In addition to those concerns, there is the obvious issue of the age of the books. The plant medicines have not changed, but new diseases are always emerging. COVID-19 is an obvious example. Figuring out an effective herbal approach to such new diseases can ultimately only be done by experience. In the interim, one has to fall back on broad spectrum herbal remedies or look to remedies used for diseases due to similar organisms. Developing a COVID-19 protocol by starting with the formulations for the older SARS is a case in point. I hope that someday someone will undertake an updating of Buhner’s impressive two volumes on herbal antibiotics and antivirals.

I would like to close with some comments on Buhner’s preference for and championing of invasives as medicinal plants. (This is the special issue of The Natural Farmer on invasives, isn’t it?) Buhner concludes his introductory remarks to Chapter 4, “Herbal Antibiotics: The Systemics,” with the words,
“While cryptolepis is sometimes hard to find, many of the other herbs in this section are not – at least in the wild. They are often widely distributed throughout the world; a number of them are considered invasive plants, which is a plus. Invasive plants – Earth’s way of insisting that we notice her medicines.”

My apologies here to Buhner and other advocates of Gaia and sacred plant medicine, but I personally look for a scientific (but not reductionist or linear) reason why something occurs. In this case, I ask, why are invasives so well represented among healing plants? My possibly simplistic reasoning is as follows: There are probably no two acres-worth of soil on the Earth that have exactly the same strains of microorganisms. Most microorganisms are beneficial to plants, but there are also many varieties that are pathogenic, and there are many strains of those pathogenic organisms. Plants have learned over millions of years to cope with pathogenic organisms in their environment, mostly through secondary chemical compounds that keep the pathogenics under control.

But the wider the range of a plant, and invasives by definition have a wide range, the greater the variety of strains of pathogenic organisms that the plant needs to control. To thrive over a wide range, a plant has to have secondary compounds that are sufficiently powerful and sufficiently broad spectrum in their actions that they can control all of those different strains of pathogens on whatever acre on whatever continent the plant finds itself.

Now, broad spectrum ability to control soil pathogens is no guarantee that a plant is invasive – ecologies are more complex than that. And a broad spectrum ability to control soil pathogens is no guarantee that a plant’s secondary compounds will also control organisms pathogenic to the human body. But I am just saying that we should not be surprised that invasive plants, with their ability to control many different strains of plant pathogens, are well represented among the plants with medicinal benefits for human beings.

Regardless of the validity of my reasoning on that issue, more dialog on the appropriate use of herbal medicine is needed, with Buhner’s books as valuable source material.

Herbal Antivirals: Natural Remedies for Emerging & Resistant Viral Infections

review by Gregory Luckman

Buhner has written several books on ecological medicine and on the art of writing nonfiction, and one book categorized as poetry. From his earliest youth, he was no stranger to the medical establishment. His grandfather David Cox was president of the Kentucky Medical Association. His great-uncle Lee Burney was surgeon general of the United States during the latter part of the Eisenhower administration. Yet Buhner has taken a different route, regarding mainstream medicine’s hubris over its paradigm for dealing with infectious diseases as ultimately a fool’s errand. This does not mean that Buhner is anti-vaccination: he regards the smallpox and polio vaccines as successes. He just believes that only herbal remedies can avoid the microbial resistance problems that plague modern medicine’s tools.

I first encountered Herbal Antivirals and a parallel book, Herbal Antibiotics (Storey Publishing, 2012), at the NOFA summer conference in 2018. I sort of read through them; they are extremely dense, fact-filled reading. I mentioned them to Jack Kittredge in late 2018 and he suggested that I write a review for The Natural Farmer, but I elected instead to review Anthony Jay’s Estrogeneration. Partly my hesitation was that I felt myself to be too much of a beginner in herbal medicine.

Today, my self-assessment of my knowledge of herbal medicine has not changed. If I were to go to an herbal conference, I would sign up for as many herbal walks as possible so that I could learn to identify some of the herbs I read about: I don’t even know what a lot of the most important medicinal herbs look like.

So, what has changed that I am willing to write this review now? In short, on Thursday, January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland declared the new outbreak of coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China to be an international public health emergency. Just in the past two weeks the death toll from the outbreak has doubled and doubled again and doubled again and doubled again. Perhaps the outbreak will recede as quickly as it started, but no one knows as I write this. As it happens, Buhner discusses the coronavirus family, especially SARS, in Herbal Antivirals, so a review now is timely.

To start, note first that the presence of a section on coronavirus illustrates how Herbal Antivirals (and Herbal Antibiotics) differ from many other books on herbal healing, for example, Guido Masé’s The Wild Medicine Solution or Rosemary Gladstar’s several books on herbs for health. Herbal Antivirals and Herbal Antibiotics are much less focused on the big picture of herbal support for all aspects of general health issues, including the modern ‘plague’ of non-infectious diseases.. Instead, they are much more oriented towards crisis management of past and once again deadly infectious diseases.

Note also that these two books by Buhner are so filled with details and so comprehensive that they might be considered as desk references for holistic medical practitioners rather than as guides for the average person whose interactions with the health care system are in the capacity of being a patient.

Chapter 1, ‘Emerging Viruses: What We Are Facing,’ serves as an introduction to Herbal Antivirals. It is a seventeen-page essay covering just what the title suggests. Buhner provides a few examples of outbreaks of viral illnesses around the world in the twenty-first century, then recounts some of the great successes of modern medicine in the second half of the twentieth century. He refers to the triumph over smallpox as “the apex of success of the medical assault on microbial disease pathogens.” He then examines in an almost philosophical way the inadequacies of the paradigm that modern medicine thought that it could use to follow its success with smallpox by similar successes with all other infectious diseases.

The next three chapters could be considered as Part One of the book. Viral illnesses are discussed individually, grouped into three categories: Chapter 2 is titled ‘Viral Respiratory Infections and Their Treatment’; Chapter 3 is titled ‘Viral Encephalitis Infections and Their Treatment’; Chapter 4 is titled ‘A Brief Look at Some Other Viruses,’ the inevitable ‘miscellaneous’ chapter that covers emergent infections that don’t fit in any other category.

In chapter 2 on viral respiratory infections, by far the most thoroughly discussed infection is influenza. Following a four-page introduction discussing the history of influenza, especially the 1918 world influenza pandemic, the chapter proceeds to a three-page discussion of the various forms of the influenza virus. The discussion describes the rearrangements and mutations that make the infection sufficiently different from those of previous years that the mutated form evades recognition by the immune system’s memory of previous encounters. As a result, infection can repeatedly recur year after year and occasionally turn into a new and deadly form.

The chapter then turns to infection dynamics and the ‘cytokine cascade.’ Cytokines are small proteins secreted by cells of the immune system to communicate with and regulate other cells. The discussion, extending over seven pages, describes step by step how the virus enters the body, gains entry to cells in the lungs, subverts their function, and then repeats the process. It is here that Buhner begins mentioning various herbs that are effective in inhibiting the individual steps of the virus’s actions. At times the discussion becomes very technical. As one extreme example, in describing the secondary infection of immune system cells, the following sentence occurs:
“In response to being infected those cells also begin releasing cytokines and chemokines: INFs, IL-1α and IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL8, CCL2 (MPC-1), CCL3 (a.k.a. macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha, or MIP-1α), CCL4, CXCL9, and CXCL10 through the ERK-1, ERK-2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2), p38 MAPK (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase), and JNK (c-Jun N terminal kinase) pathways.”

OK, read that quotation out loud three times very fast.

Seriously, one does at times get the impression that he is telling the reader more about penguins than the reader might want to know. But he is not making any of the technical parts up. The book is heavy on references, mostly to peer-reviewed scientific studies. Many of the references are from outside of the western world. One thing is clear. Buhner comes across as a person with a deep knowledge of the subject of viral illnesses and of their herbal treatments.

Following the section on infection dynamics and the cytokine cascade, the chapter turns to the phenomenon believed to have made the 1918 influenza pandemic so deadly: cytokine storms. These are positive feedback loops. (Very bad: in living systems one wants negative, or self-limiting, feedback loops.) In cytokine storms, tissue damage leads to more cytokine release, which leads to more tissue damage, which leads to more cytokine release, etcetera, until the lungs fill with fluid and the patient dies from suffocation. There are further mentions of herbs that are most useful in dealing with this stage of an influenza infection.

Buhner devotes two pages to describing mainstream medical interventions, then over eleven pages to natural treatment protocols for influenza. Here he gets very specific on doses and frequencies for various herbal tincture combinations and herbal teas.

All in all, Buhner devotes thirty-two pages of chapter 2 to influenza. And then . . .
still in chapter 2, he turns to SARS and other coronaviruses. He states, “Of the dozen or so coronaviruses only three infect people.” Presumably, the new virus, now labeled 2019-nCoV, is a fourth. Buhner devotes only five pages to this class of viruses, including one page to his suggested protocol for SARS. But this does not mean that he is giving short shrift to coronaviruses. His discussion of SARS leans heavily on the prior discussion of influenza. Many of the fancy words and acronyms introduced in the influenza discussion and typified in the quotation above recur, this time (with the assumption?) that the reader is a bit familiar with them. Emphasis is placed on the differences from influenza, both in the mechanisms of disease progression and in the corresponding choice of herbs.

This means, of course, that one cannot necessarily turn directly to the section on SARS and coronaviruses and understand it fully without having spent the time to follow the influenza discussion– time well spent, by the way: As of January 31, 2020 an Internet source indicated that 10,000 had died in the US of influenza, including 68 children – far more than have died of 2019-nCoV.

Chapter 2 concludes with a two-page discussion of a few other viruses that cause respiratory infections: adenoviruses, parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial viruses, and rhinoviruses.

Chapter 3, ‘Viral Encephalitis Infections and Their Treatment,’ covers for such infections the same kind of information as chapter 2 covers for respiratory infections. However, the organization is slightly different. Six pages of general introduction include a categorization of virus types, symptoms, and mainstream medical treatments. Then, in a section on mechanisms of viral infection, the discussion breaks out Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, and La Crosse encephalitis. For each virus type, Buhner mentions herbs that are effective for inhibiting specific steps of the infection progression. As with the discussion of SARS and coronaviruses, there are numerous acronyms, many familiar from the discussion of influenza.

There follows a section on natural treatments for encephalitis, three pages of protocol common to all forms, then an additional page of specifics for the different viruses. Finally, the discussion turns to herbs specific for protecting and regenerating neurons: Chinese senega root, Japanese knotweed, kudzu root, lion’s mane, and pink-striped trumpet lily.

Chapter 4, ‘A brief Look at Some Other Viruses,’ covers cytomegalovirus, dengue fever, enteroviruses 71 and D68 (whatever that means), Epstein-Barr, herpes simplex 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus (chicken pox/shingles), and the gastrointestinal viruses rotavirus and norovirus. (Hopefully, no one will have to deal with all of these at once. The range of viruses considered is part of what creates the perception that Herbal Antivirals is intended as a desk reference for holistic medical practitioners rather than as a book for home use.) Mention of useful herbs is postponed until the section on treatment protocols, seventeen pages that conclude the chapter.

Chapters 5 and 6 could be considered as part 2 of Herbal Antivirals, although they are not broken out as such. Chapters 2 through 4 were organized around specific classes of infections. Chapter 5 and 6 are organized around specific herbs. Chapter 5 is called the “Materia Medica.” Buhner offers his list of “the top seven antiviral herbs.” They are Chinese skullcap, Elder, Ginger, Houttuynia, Isatis, Licorice, and Lomatium. Speaking of isatis, a member of the Brassicaceae family, he states, “The Chinese used the leaf decoction to good effectiveness in treating the SARS outbreak there several years ago.” But he also notes that isatis is very invasive and damaging to other vegetation, stating as an example, “It reduces cattle grazing capacity by about 40 percent on infested range.” According to Buhner, Houttuynia is also very invasive.

Buhner also mentions several ‘honorable mentions,’ of which he discusses only Boneset and Red root in detail. He does indicate that there are many other antiviral herbs and invites the reader to please try those others as well.

The discussion of each of the nine named herbs is extensive, including sections on which parts of the plant are used, preparation and dosage, side effects, herb-herb and herb-drug interactions, habitat and appearance, cultivation and collection, medical properties, commercial sources, plant chemistry, traditional uses, and finally, in smaller type font, a description of studies that Buhner found in the worldwide scientific literature. All told, the discussions of the named herbs run to thirty-eight pages. Again, the reader might feel overwhelmed by the detail for each herb, but again, there is a clear impression that Buhner has provided nearly encyclopedic information.

Chapter 6, ‘Strengthening the Immune System,’ comes closest to resembling other books on herbal healing. The format is similar to that of chapter 5. There are only three herbs mentioned, however: Astragalus, Cordyceps, and Rhodiola. This contrasts with the corresponding discussion in Herbal Antibiotics, in which Buhner includes eight herbs (including Boneset and Red root, which are covered in chapter 5 of Herbal Antivirals).

The book includes an appendix on herbal medicine making for the do-it-yourselfers and another appendix on sources of supply for those who would prefer to buy rather than make their own. (There are now additional suppliers, some of whom have recently been appearing as vendors at NOFA summer and winter conferences over the past year and a half. Some of the latter have specifically described their products as being those of the “Buhner protocol.”) In general, the “Buhner protocol” refers not only to the protocols in Herbal Antivirals and Herbal Antibiotics, but also to Buhner’s protocols for Lyme disease described in yet another book, Healing Lyme, that I haven’t even read yet.
I have three concerns about the book. First, one cannot decide on a detailed herbal protocol until one knows what infection one has. But only mainstream scientific medicine is very good at diagnosis, even if it is locked into a treatment paradigm that leads inevitably to viral or bacterial resistance. So, in a sense, one is still dependent on the mainstream medical system before one can optimize herbal remedies for an infection. But what happens if one is quarantined in an isolation ward for fourteen days while the herbal remedies are sitting at home?

Second, I have mixed feeling about Buhner’s advocacy of planting invasive species, even if they have strong antiviral properties. His advocacy is usually presented with humor, as in saying something akin to: “Plant it. You won’t regret it. Just don’t tell the neighbors.” But what if the neighbor is an organic farmer struggling to keep invasive species out of vegetable beds without chemical herbicides? Buhner is clearly writing for readers as patients, not as farmers. More dialogue on the proper stewardship of land dedicated to invasive antivirals is needed.

Third, in my opinion, the primary shortcoming of Herbal Antivirals for many readers is in its very comprehensiveness. It behooves people to plan ahead and have selected herbal tinctures and powders in a home medicine cabinet before illness strikes. No one wants to have to order from a supplier or make one’s own when already sick in bed. But many readers are on a budget. Acquisition of many eight-ounce bottles of tinctures can be quite expensive. But which herbs and what size bottles are most important to have prophylactically as a first line of defense? Clearly, one wants to make choices that are broad-spectrum. This would cover the largest number of contingencies at the least cost. But, given the desire to have both prophylactic herbal antivirals and herbal antibiotics, it is not clear how to select the most important.

Perhaps 2019-cCoV will simplify the choice in the short run. If infection due to that virus becomes a worldwide pandemic, then one wants to have on hand the constituents for Buhner’s coronavirus protocol. But in the longer term more dialogue on the construction of an appropriate medicine cabinet, with Buhner’s books as one possible knowledge foundation, is still needed.

Fibershed: Growing a Movement of Farmers, Fashion Activists, and Makers for a New Textile Economy

fibershed coverreviewed by Maureen Doyle

What will you do to reduce your carbon footprint? Help your local economy? Relieve worker conditions around the globe? Fibershed gives a New Years’ Resolution that incorporates all these and more: purchase things within your fibershed.

What’s that, you ask? It’s where materials for clothing and related goods come from, roughly a 150 mile radius, comparable to a watershed. Too many of our material goods are produced throughout the world, leaving individuals with a large carbon footprint and secondhand responsibility for many unsavory practices.

Rebecca Burgess does a great job of outlining how our clothing choices contribute to the carbon in the atmosphere and other pollution, how the “synthetic biology solution” is anything but, as well as providing real solutions other than supporting ‘fast fashion,’ distant markets, and damaging manufacturing processes. From a basis of personal experience (for example, she starts by talking about trying to grow indigo for dye), she suggests evaluating our clothing much like we do our food, asking how far has it traveled and how was it grown or raised. With this evaluation, Burgess says that we can “move from being net emitters of greenhouse gases to net reducers.”

Fibershed essentially outlines a “cradle to cradle” system of production: designing something with its afterlife in mind, with components that can be composted, recycled, or reused. Burgess simply terms it “soil to soil.” Since soil is able to hold four times as much carbon as plants and three times more than air, this is an important place to focus our attention concerning carbon. Beyond that, carbon-rich soil is better for plants because it retains more moisture and nutrients. As Burgess notes, “If cropland is managed to become a water sponge that recharges aquifers at rates higher than what is consumed to grow a crop, there is a real possibility for growing fiber, food and dye in a manner that regenerates hydraulic function in our farm and ranchland.”

Burgess gave the concept a personal touch with numerous photos and excerpts from farmers, ranchers and artisans of north central California, where she lives. Beyond that, she roots it firmly in various aspects of the world around us, including cooperatives, pastoralism, carbon farming, sericulture, opposition to GMOs, history and geography. Readers with an interest in agriculture and ecology will recognize many names she mentions – such as Allan Savory, Aldo Leopold and Tim LaSalle – and will not be overwhelmed with all the acronyms of modern agriculture.

Those of us interested in agriculture will understand that such a clothing choice makes sense in helping to repay our society’s immense carbon debt. But, how do we convince everyday consumers? For many, unfortunately, the only consideration is price.

Burgess points out that a “life cycle assessment” will demonstrate “cost per wear” to help people see the need, but will folks do it? Many people are lured into the false promises of synthetic biology. Chapter 4 describes, in layman’s terms, why the local or regional ‘soil to soil’ framework is so necessary to combat corporate control and patenting of designer organisms. She reminds us of cases of contamination from Bt cotton in India, RoundUp ready crops and use of CRISPR technology – all once promoted as solutions that now “demonstrate how culturally and ecologically insidious genetically-modified organisms are and why they should be resisted at all levels.”

She could have called it “Why we need a new khadi movement” (which she mentions), but “The False Promise of Synthetic Biology” is probably more catchy. While venture capitalists love such technology and use fancy graphics, smooth TED-talks and speeches by hip, young technophiles to promote it as inexpensive and environmentally-safe, that has not been proven. What has been, Burgess notes, are “centuries of culture and time-tested agricultural traditions,” and she urges us to embrace these as historical victories instead of seeing them as hurdles to “progress.”

To address the threat of synthetic biology, Burgess recommends encouraging government regulation. However, the companies using it now are already exploiting previous rules and the many loopholes woven into them (often by the industry itself). That makes it a challenge to pursue a regenerative agricultural venture, but she thinks we can help them overcome it by starting things like seed banks, water-saving practices, offering free or reduced labor, and collaborating with the business somehow. Burgess gives examples of success stories using animals, human-powered technology and fiber crops that have helped revive local economies and workforces in various places.

She presents a realistic method of creating fibersheds throughout the country that includes markets, supply and demand, issues surrounding the legality of certain crops (such as hemp), and the technical expertise required at each step. She’s not starry-eyed about it – building a community-level fibershed will involve “large-scale financial investment” from such sources as USDA programs, investments, and municipal bonds. Many state and municipal entities will need to be involved, and Burgess estimates about three years of calls, networking, emails, and supply-chain support is necessary before the first “regionally grown and sewn” good is produced.

Fortunately, the means to do it mostly already exist, and she fills the back of the book with regional resources, plus additional reading and helpful hints to people wanting to start something in their area, including alternative crops like nettles and milkweed. These and other natural fibers can be recycled many times and work well with natural dyes. They can be used to create heirloom garments (not just throw away ones). Burgess emphasizes the return of durable clothes that can be handed down (remember hand-me-downs?) as well as the fact that dye plants and fiber plants can be integrated into many crop rotations.

In the not-so-long-term, taking the Fibershed path will help us rebuild a habitat that supports humans as well as regional wildlife and ecology.

The Small-Scale Cheese Business: The Complete Guide to Running a Successful Farmstead Creamery

Reviewed by Sanne Kure-Jensen

If you have dairy animals and are thinking about starting a cheese operation, do your homework first. “The Small-Scale Cheese Business” offers a thorough roadmap for would-be cheesemakers and Caldwell shares her own experience as well as stories from other cheesemakers. The book will be helpful to beginning and established small and hobby-farm livestock owners and is an excellent guide for anyone wanting to improve his or her dairy practices and upgrade their on-farm cheesemaking infrastructure.

Before making a significant financial investment in equipment and other infrastructure, be sure to review Caldwell’s guidelines for setting up a cheesemaking operation. Learn about forming a business, creating infrastructure and selling your finished products.

Caldwell’s book opens with two simple questions:

Do you love rising early and working long days, day after day?

Do you love washing dishes over and over again?

If you and your partner or family are prepared for lots of labor, periodic stresses and financial challenge, then you may have what it takes to run a cheesemaking operation.

Caldwell’s book guides prospective cheesemakers through a market analysis to discover future customers, how to reach them and at what cost. Readers can learn the many elements of a budget, complete business plan and potential sources of start-up and operating capital. Caldwell discusses the need for “food insurance”, also known as product liability insurance. She guides readers through considerations for health and auto insurance. Caldwell explained that when entering into a business with one or more partners, life insurance is an important consideration if the business is to go on without a key partner. Partnership agreements should also have an exit plan that allows one partner to leave the business, without a serious illness or death.

Finding good help is hard. Keeping and managing employees offers its own challenges. Caldwell discusses pay rates, job classifications and applicable labor laws.

“The Small-Scale Cheese Business” helps readers design a creamery. Caldwell briefly covers dairy management and the importance of starting with high quality milk. She thoroughly discusses equipment needs as well as lay out considerations for the milking parlor, milkhouse and makeroom. Aging rooms must have good temperature humidity and air exchange systems. Aging rooms may be belowground cellars or “caves,” repurposed refrigerator truck beds or walk-in coolers. Caldwell discusses shelf systems and ways to save money with used equipment.

Caldwell reviews design considerations for accessory spaces including an office, packaging room, tasting room, laundry room and bathroom.

Using Caldwell’s guidelines, readers can calculate their water needs, explores different types of heating systems and wastewater handling options. Efficiency is critical to any business; Caldwell advises readers to purchase the right sized equipment for peak efficiency in energy use as well as upfront and operating cost.

Details on planning, daily chores as well as food safety requirements and liabilities help a new cheesemaker ensure customer safety and operational efficiency. Caldwell discusses Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Plans and the need to develop a plan, set up regular monitoring and verification, establish record keeping and follow through with action plans.

Recalls are any food manufacturers’ nightmare. Caldwell explains preventive steps and federally required traceability tools that can help minimize the impact of any recall, should there be a problem with a particular batch.
Agritourism, Agritainment and Open Houses bring additional customers and revenue to farm operations across the country. To bring in extra revenue, cheesemakers can offer public workshops or offer consulting and training to other cheesemakers.

Caldwell even has a chapter on how to manage runaway success – when cheesemakers need to buy in more milk than they can produce because of high customer demand. There is another chapter on how to re-energize when the honeymoon is over and everything about the business seems overwhelming.

An extensive Appendix lists sources for equipment, resources, training, associations and sample layout diagrams.

This book was originally published in 2010 as “The Farmstead Creamery Advisor.”

Learn about Gianaclis Caldwell at http://gianacliscaldwell.wordpress.com/ or facebook.com/pages/Gianaclis-Caldwell/409644159053571. Learn more about the author’s farm and cheesemaking operation at pholiafarm.com.

Holistic Goat Care: A Comprehensive Guide to Raising Healthy Animals, Preventing Common Ailments, and Troubleshooting Problems

Holistic Goat Carereview by Christy Bassett
Few animals on the farm are as charismatic and curious as the goat. Their attention seeking cries, soulful eyes and playful bounds win over visitors without much effort. Because of this, goats are often an early addition to a beginning farmer’s assets. But under the dog-like facade, goats are complex ruminants that require an advanced skill set and a close eye to raise successfully, especially when being raised for food production. Books like Holistic Goat Care are a godsend for when the inevitable health problem arises, and the newbie goat owner needs a crash course in health care.

Caldwell reflects this sentiment in her introduction, recalling her own personal learning curve as she transitioned from pet goat owner to dairy goat owner and conventional medicine user to holistic care giver. As a goat dairy owner, she uses examples from her own experiences as she takes the reader through the five parts of goat ownership; Starting Out Right, On the Farm, Managing Herd Health, The Productive Herd- Making Babies and Milk, and Solving Goat Health Problems.

Although I found the first several sections of the book accurate and useful in describing the selection of a breed and understanding goat needs, as a semi-experienced goat owner I was most interested in the final section on solving goat health problems. Lucky for me, this section makes up a good portion of the book’s contents. Holistic Goat Care is formatted as a resource book, with excellent labeling, indexing and searchability. The diagrams and tables are useful visuals that correspond well to the medical conditions and treatments that are shared. Chapters within this section are separated into the various systems within the body, making it easy to find and read through when you are faced with specific symptoms in your herd. Each chapter also includes a chart that identifies signs or symptoms that may appear along with a list of possible causes, allowing a quick glance at possible diagnoses.

Most common ailments that the small-scale goat owner will experience are covered well, beginning with a description of each condition and the typical cause of the onset. The author then breaks down the signs and symptoms, treatment and prevention plan for each condition reported, being clear that these statements do not replace a veterinarian’s input. I appreciate Caldwell’s focus on organic and extensive care, highlighting the fact that farm management and preventative care are the keys to maintaining a healthy herd, while recognizing that there is a balance between conventional and organic methods of care.

Unfortunately, for strictly organically managed herds, there are limited treatment options for sick animals and oftentimes the plan of action is to do nothing, resulting in death of the animal. As Caldwell suggests, however, identifying the condition and isolating or euthanizing the animal can be extremely helpful in preventing the spread of a disease or allowing a condition to further manifest. I value the overall caring tone of the book, but also the practical and realistic approach to holistic goat management. As stated in Chapter Two, “Not everyone is lucky enough to have the acreage to manage goats more extensively, nor fortunate enough to have organically produced feeds readily available-or affordable. I believe the most realistic approach to reaching this goal is to find a balance between what you’re currently comfortable with and what you can envision as the most organic and extensive management choices possible for your farm.”

Published in Winter 2018-19 issue.

The Organic Medicinal Herb Farmer, The Ultimate Guide to Producing High-Quality Herbs on a Market Scale

review by Lucia Stout Huebner

If you are interested in any aspect of Medicinal Herb Farming, this is the book for you. It’s well organized, beautifully written, loaded with information, discusses many important environmental issues and most of all inspires the reader.

Preparing his Eagle Scout project, my son was charged with preparing a report that any person could use as a guide to complete the whole project on their own This book does just that for the Medicinal Herb Farmer. But this is more than simply a how-to book. The authors have woven their own story and thoughts about sustainable and organic farming into each chapter so the text is interesting and a pleasure to read. I marked many passages to revisit later and found the text encouraging and realistic.

My neighbor and friend Tish Streeten, who produced the documentary Juliette of the Herbs, stopped over when I had the book out. She is a colleague and friends of Rosemary Gladstar and the Carpenters and said she›d heard many good things already about this book within the herbalist community. We thumbed through the book together and she too was impressed with the wealth of information. On that winter afternoon, the book sparked a great con-versation about the upcoming spring and possibilities of growing herbs.

This book is beautifully organized starting with the excellent foreword by Rosemary Gladstar. The first seventeen chapters cover each aspect of Medicinal Herb farming in detail. For instance in the chapter about “Tools of the Trade” the authors talk about both hand tools and power tools and include re-sources showing where to purchase the best tools. Under “Thinking Like a Business Manager”, they include ideas about how to manage employees, what data is most important to gather and how they used it to make progress. They are generous in sharing names of people they’ve consulted to help them with their planning. Any farmer would find this chapter useful in conducting their business.

The authors tackle every imaginable aspect of medicinal herb farming from the super practical such as how to build an herb drying shed, to broader top-ics such as why we need growers so that wild American Ginseng doesn›t go extinct.

The two column graphic layout of the book is enjoyable to read with clear subheadings. The book is richly illustrated with a wealth of photographs from the Carpenter’s farm. They use many informational graphics and sidebars very effectively to delve more deeply into topics.

The second half of the book includes 50 entries about each of the individual herbs covering Life Cycle, Plant Description, Growing Conditions, Propaga-tion; Planting Considerations; Medicinal Uses; Harvest Specifications and Pricing. There are a few plants missing such as milk thistle and borage that perhaps could be in a second edition.

I always enjoyed getting back to the book because of the Carpenter’s excellent writing. Their enthusiasm for their chosen profession practically jumps off the page, tempered with many helpful hints for avoiding some of the pitfalls they encountered. Many of these tips can be applied to other types of farming. This is a book that would be of interest to all types of farmers, not just herb farmers. While I enjoyed reading the book chapter by chapter, it is also easy to open at any relevant chapter to find specific information.

The only question I’d like to know is how this busy couple found the time to write and produce such a superb book while running a productive and thriv-ing farm. Clearly they are rising stars on the horizon of the farming renaissance.


Reviewed by Larry Siegel

Seeds have developed a certain cachet; I can number a half-dozen books I have read on the subject in recent years. This is long overdue; the seed represents, after all, the vital link between yesterday and today and tomorrow (though the mad scientists are probably at work to eliminate this link). To the mix we can now add Seedtime by Scott Chaskey. The inner jacket of the book refers to Chaskey as a poet, farmer, and educator. There are moments poetic and there are moments agricultural, but, in writing this book, Chaskey has primarily assumed the role of educator. The words, and thoughts, of many individuals have been distilled and presented. (The list of sources runs eight pages and it would surprise me not at all to learn that Chaskey has read most of them.)

Subtitled On the History, Husbandry, Politics, and Promise of Seeds, it is just that, the various facets interwoven to create a whole. The reader will gain a historical perspective, an understanding of the current state of affairs, and a sense as to how current conditions might be addressed and altered. The reader is also introduced to a number of individuals and organizations dedicated to that task. The overriding question, for me, is whether this cadre of folks can pull it off. I hope Chaskey’s book finds its way to a readership beyond the NOFA audience, because, in my opinion, it is only in numbers that profound changes can occur. That they need to occur is unmistakable. But, the likes of Monsanto will not bow out gracefully.

As a footnote, the cover photo by Maria Bowling sparkles. If one could, in fact, tell a book by its cover, this cover is telling one to read on.

The New Organic Grower:

review by Jack Kittredge

This is pretty much the book Eliot wrote 30 years ago. There are some updates and new passages, but not a lot. You could say the lack of major changes by him is proof that he did a great job the first time, and you would be right.

But I was particularly interested in reviewing this anniversary edition to see if Eliot included any of the new thinking on tillage, information on the role of soil microbiology in plant nutrition or excitement about regenerating land while mitigating climate change via soil carbon sequestration.

The New Organic Grower has been a go-to manual for serious organic farmers for 30 years. Virtually every aspect of what you need to know about small organic vegetable farming in the Northeast is given thoughtful treatment – scale, land, labor, capital, marketing, harvest, crop rotation, cover crops, tillage, fertility, seeding and transplanting, weeds, pests, season extension and greenhouse design, winter production, the importance of tools, incorporating livestock. Some only get 3 or 4 pages, some get many more, and diagrams to boot. But every page bears the imprint of his philosophy – plan thoughtfully, innovate if you don’t like your options, take care with details, focus on quality instead of quantity, be watchful, always learn.

In 2018, given what we now know about climate change and the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, a lot of thoughtful farmers are reassessing their practices to be more protective of soil carbon and the microbial biodiversity it sustains. They recognize that regular tillage can be destructive to beneficial fungi (creatures that are crucial to the crop quality Coleman seeks) while it and bare soil are major contributors to the carbon oxidation that fuels global warming.

I was hoping to see recognition of the impact of these practices in this volume by someone so committed to innovation and learning. Instead I saw repeated descriptions of various tillage devices and illustrations of them and orderly crops, surrounded by bare soil. The republication of a book of this reach, written by a wise elder, seemed like an opportunity to explore this topic for new readers. I was disappointed that it was not taken.

For All the People: Uncovering the Hidden History of Cooperation, Cooperative Movements, and Communalism in America

review by Jack Kittredge

For all the people coverThis volume has generally been recognized as the definitive history of cooperatives in America. As the extended title suggests, when speaking of cooperatives Curl includes trade unions, political parties, communes, and other organizations created out of working people’s efforts to rise out of wage labor (or small farmers to keep from being crushed by rising transportation costs and falling prices) and achieve a better life.

He begins with a look at the indigenous communities that functioned, in contrast to individuals, as the Native American productive units, exercising collective ownership within family-based groups, practicing hunting, fishing, and agriculture within a largely democratic structure.

But with the advent of European settlement based on royal land grants, property rights in land became a fundamental economic principle in the New World. In the Spanish colonies these grants from the 1600s often included community land grants called “ejidos” and made to groups of married settlers for use of land set aside for entire communities. These practices were based on customs in medieval Spain and also on the “calpulli” cooperative family system of the Aztecs.

As many scholars know, during the first three years of the Pilgrim settlement in Plymouth they farmed and worked communally, depositing their products in a common warehouse and taking from a common store. They were financed for their voyage here, however, by a group of merchants and were expected to deliver fur, timber and fish in return. They were to work for seven years to pay off their debts, and then all capital and profits would be divided equally among them. Relations quickly soured between the settlers and the investors, however. The latter failed to supply the new food, clothes and tools they promised, and the former demanded and got individual plots. Eventually the settlers bought out the investors and achieved self-government.

The economic history of the colonies and later the republic, according to Curl, was one of continual frustration for those seeking to enjoy the remarkable opportunities the continent seemingly provided. Apart from the obvious direct exploitation of African Americans as slaves, those who arrived as indentured servants or even free laborers found it hard to rise.

As he puts it: “The beginnings of industrialization under the capitalist system in the early 19th century forced an ever-growing number of workers to become permanent wage earners. Hand tool production soon became obsolete; the new machines and processes were both prohibitively expensive and could be operated only by ever-larger numbers of coordinated workers. While the vast productive power unleashed by technological advances promised freedom and plenty for all, numerous artisanal workers were left unable to make a living using the old tools, so had no choice but to find bosses and submit to becoming employees. Meanwhile, land costs skyrocketed: the road to independence as a small farmer was quickly being closed. Vast new areas were continually annexed to the fledgling United States but that enormous wealth went mostly for the further enrichment of a small number of land speculators, ultimately the same financiers who were behind the factories in the North and the plantations in the South.”

Many people’s response to such an oppressive reality is discussed in this remarkable account of efforts to join together in cooperative activity. Through era after era of American history, workers formed alternative economic and social institutions – stores, joint farm marketing groups, producer co-ops, employee associations, labor unions, credit unions, housing co-ops, political parties. Very few lasted for long, but at the time they galvanized the energies of activists and leaders, keeping alive the knowledge that if things get bad enough there are alternatives available.

In the early days of the republic the New England Association of Farmers, Mechanics and Other Workingmen (NEAFMOW – 1831-34) and the National Trades Union (NTU – 1834-37) were formed, the former initially to fight for the 10-hour day (won in Philadelphia in 1835 as a result of a strike of 17 trade unions paralyzing the city) and the latter to fight speculation and open cooperatives in a number of trades like shoemaking, tailoring, cabinet making, hatting, and saddling.

“Before 1860,” Curl writes, “individual ownership and partnerships were still the most common forms of business, but corporations began to dominate in areas of the economy that required increasingly larger capital outlays, particularly textiles, iron, coal, and railroads. Besides providing companies more capital without really forcing them to relinquish control, incorporation provided limited liability and many tax benefits…Unions grew fast in the years following 1842, after a judicial decision finally declared they had a right to exist at all.”

Cooperatives were still struggling to find a legal framework that enabled democratic control of the venture but allowed for growth and dynamic management. The success of the British Rochdale store finally led Americans to adopt the Rochdale system for consumer cooperatives by the time of the Civil War. And, of course, the contest between Southern slave owners and Northern factory owners over whether the vast Western lands should be slave or free dominated all economic issues by 1860.

The forces released by the Civil War changed the country forever. The Homestead Act of 1862 threw open millions of acres for any citizen or intended citizen who had never borne arms against the country to qualify for free land by living on it and improving it for five years. Although much of the land ended up in the hands of railroads and speculators, still 1 in 10 families who went to settle the West actually ended up with a free homestead.

But the larger forces of development required more and more capital for success. Waves of strikes and cooperative development alternated with failures and retrenchment caused by financial panics and resulting unemployment. The Grange and the Knights of Labor were among the cooperative triumphs of the post Civil War period, but the depressions of 1873, 1883, 1893, and 1899 saw the destruction of most of the gains.

The Populist movement for a time seemed to be succeeding in the Midwest and prairie states with the election of governors and legislators sympathetic to the movement, but federal power and the courts continually frustrated their legislative measures. Industrial unions like the Wobblies, radical political leaders like Debs and Thomas, farmer movements like the upper Midwest’s Non-Partisan League, and the founding of the Cooperative League inspired millions, but World War I and the conservative reaction to bolshevism galvanized the right to increase repression and strike-breaking.

It wasn’t until the Great Depression and the advent of FDR and the New Deal that popular energy was again ascendant. The Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), socialist groups like Upton Sinclair’s End Poverty in California, the Southern Tenant Farmers Union and the federal Banks for Cooperatives all again enabled common people to organize, often lead by dedicated radicals.

World War II served, as had the Great War, to unleash huge productive forces and re-write the economic realities. For a time organized labor, multi-national corporations and big agriculture seemed to guarantee prosperity for all but black tenant farmers, Hispanic agricultural laborers, and the urban unemployed. But the now global industries began to export manufacturing jobs to low-wage nations and American wage-earners soon felt the pinch. Once again local cooperatives have taken up much of the energy for change and currently represent significant employment numbers (Curl includes non-profit associations in his rather wide-ranging definition of “cooperatives”).

Most of this remarkably detailed recounting is a straight narrative history of facts and events without Curl putting in much of his own analysis. In his conclusion, however, he draws together some common threads of several hundred years of cooperative endeavors to examine and draw lessons from this material. I found this the most interesting part of the book — looking at the kinds of people involved, what they are trying to achieve, how they set about doing it, and why so many failed.

Regarding who they are, he says: “The tapestry of US history is woven with the day-to-day struggles of hundreds of millions of ordinary people for better lives. Mutual-aid organizations such as cooperatives and unions have always been near the heart of those struggles… The differences between the rural and urban populations have been more apparent than deep. Most of the families in the farm communities of the Midwest and West were formerly urban people from the East, drawn there by the offer of almost-free land.”

Of course the decisions and actions of these people when joining together are heavily influenced by their economic environment. Sometimes these conditions can lead to paradoxical activity!

“Cooperative movements in America,” he points out, “have always risen and fallen with the turns of the economic cycle. When money is scarce in hardening economic times, cooperatives have experienced a surge in membership, but the hardest of times have also killed them. Worker cooperatives have often been formed during economic upturns, when workers can gather enough resources to try to make a go of it. Yet, during periods of general prosperity, people have also tended to explore more individualistic options, and have abandoned cooperation and social movements.”

Curl treats the difficult question of co-op success rates frankly.

“The beginning of this study asked why there are so few worker cooperatives. Hopefully, this history has shed some light on the answer… Numerous worker cooperatives have been organized over the last 200 years, and most have ultimately failed. Are there flaws inherent in the concept or structure that make them unworkable? Individual cooperatives, like any human organization, ultimately fail. In this, they are no different from any individual business. The majority of solo new businesses fail in their first year. Standard advice to startups is to not expect a profit for the first two years.”

But the economic environment is not always equitable.

“The tax laws and the money system offer businesses and corporations – particularly large corporations – numerous economic advantages that they do not offer to worker cooperatives. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, most work has been increasingly dominated by costly technology, and worker cooperatives almost always begin small and under-capitalized, and involve people with underdeveloped business skills.”

Often when co-ops are successful, there has been governmental support.

“In times of crisis the American people have repeatedly returned to mutual aid, and have called on government for support. When the economic system has stymied them, they have formed political organizations to try to change the rules of the system… The New Deal’s promotion and support of cooperatives was the fruit of generations of struggle…the New Deal remains a beacon, and demonstrates what a partnership between progressives and government might accomplish.”

He concludes with his own critique and ultimate faith in cooperation.

“People who are looking for a structural panacea for all the world’s problems are barking up an empty tree…Each new generation creates structures to solve its needs, not mimicking some ideal forms, but always in an intensely practical relation to the actual situation on the ground… Worker cooperation has always been close to the heart of America. It has been our common past, our heritage, and can become our common future.”

This volume also includes 19 pages of wonderful (but small) photos of many of the figures mentioned in it, as well as contemporary posters, political cartoons and other illustrations of the events covered. I was fascinated by the 1892 electoral map of the country showing the votes for Populist presidential candidate James Weaver. He won five states outright, garnering over a third of the votes in another four! Also of interest are photos of the legendary triumvirate of Gene Debs, Big Bill Haywood, and Mother Jones.

The Gospel of Kindness: Animal Welfare and the Making of Modern America

review by Jack Kittredge

This is a scholarly work, published by a university professor for use in university classes. So if you are looking for a soft read, look elsewhere. If, however, you are looking for a detailed factual history of the origins of the animal rights movement in America, its growth and close relationship to many other re-form movements like abolition, temperance, and suffrage, and its fascinating role in establishing a litmus test by which national assimilation was ascer-tained, you will want this short volume. Those who are interested in the mythology of American exceptionalism, that belief in the uniqueness and benevo-lence of America’s republican political institutions, will find much to ponder in its shared history with animal welfare concerns.

Although there were clear precedents in such conflicts as Puritans versus Royalists regarding animal sports in very early 15th century England, and the Massachusetts Bay Colony’s adoption in 1641 of a Body of Liberties which prohibits “any Tirranny or Crueltie towards any bruite Creature which are usuallie kept for man’s use”, Davis places the origins of animal protectionism in the Second Great Awakening, that Protestant religious revival movement which swept America from about 1790 to 1840. As a part of the much larger Romantic movement, that Awakening rejected rationalism and deism in favor of enthusiastic emotion and a direct relationship with God. One outward sign of that relationship, according to Davis’ reading of the period, was a concern with animal mercy.

And ‘mercy’ was the operative term in the early part of this movement, not the current preference for ‘vegetarianism’ and ‘animal rights’. As Davis puts it, “…a flesh-eating, deeply religious constituency that supported euthanasia and tolerated the presence of animals in entertainment would likely seem un-familiar to animal activists today.”

She tracks the interaction between animal welfare activity and the larger social history through which it passed from the early years of American colonial settlement until the end of World War Two. Several key influences were abolition, temperance, the changing technology of transport, and American impe-rialism.

The parallels between abuse of animals and slavery were clearly drawn by activists by about 1830. The treatment of animals was used as a litmus test of character in abolitionist writings, which in the last three decades before the Civil War increasingly focused on the slave’s excruciating bodily suffering. The advent of nitrous oxide gas and ether anesthesia in medical and dental experiments at the time had the unexpected effect of redefining pain itself as preventable — no longer an inevitable symptom of God’s wrath – and therefore a product of human agency.

The legal partnership of George Angell, founder of the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and Samuel Sewell, prominent abolitionist and Massachusetts Senator, was a major resource in support of the suffering. Their office defended fugitive slaves and was a Boston head-quarters not only for abolitionists such as William Lloyd Garrison, John Brown, and Wendell Phillips, but also the internationally known gentle horse trainer John Rarey. When he funded the US publication of “Black Beauty”, Angell referenced the inspiration he received from Harriet Beecher Stowe’s “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”.

In its day the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (founded in 1874) was a major engine of reform with Departments of Mercy (animal welfare), Purity in Literature and Art, and Penal and Reformatory Work along with the activities focused on alcohol abuse. The all-female group used the valorization of marriage and motherhood in contemporary society to enhance the appeal of its messages. The Department of Mercy was active in opposing vivisection (surgery on living creatures for research or educational purposes) as well as protecting domestic and wild animals. Wearing parts of birds in women’s hats was a major fashion trend around the turn of the century and became a focus of Department of Mercy efforts to pass legislation, including the 1900 Lacey Act prohibiting interstate commerce in specific birds.

A major current in animal reform movements was to characterize animal abuse as “un-American”. Immigrants were associated with eating dogs and pas-senger pigeons, overworking and beating carthorses, encouraging dog and cock fights, and inhumane slaughter when MSPCA president Francis Rowley clashed with Jewish leaders over shechitah or the kosher requirement to have an animal conscious when its throat is slit. D. W. Griffith’s short 1913 film The Battle at Elderbush Gulch even has Native Americans snatch puppies from two tearful white girls to celebrate the “Feast of Dogs” (never fear, the US Cavalry saves them in the end!) American civics textbooks such as “The Teaching of Civics” (also 1913) exhorted immigrant children to practice animal kindness (“always protect birds and other animals”) as a pathway to proper citizenship.

Animal welfare was even associated with justifying American imperialism abroad. Congress, in the July, 1898 annexation of Hawaii, passed an expansive animal welfare law for the islands. A year later we established a “Protectora de los Animales in Puerto Rico, and in 1900 banned cockfighting in Cuba. In 1902 the Mu-nicipal Board of Manila, working directly under civil governor William Howard Taft, passed an “Ordinance for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals”. As far as the use of animals in war itself, although some leaders such as George Angell opposed the Spanish American War on the basis of “all the animal creations that suffer so terribly in wars”, others applauded the patriotic service of horses, mules, elephants, camels and dogs on the battlefields of World War One.

As the centrality of animal power to our economy slowly changed to mechanical power, so too did the concerns of the animal welfare movement. Before World War One animals were ever present in most people’s lives and cases of suffering from bad treatment were evident to all. As the years progressed, however, draft animals slowly disappeared from view and livestock operations became larger but more remote and less visible. The fragile status of wildlife, though, became more central in popular media.

During the first half of the twentieth century animal advocates lost two important allies. As a result of the professionalization of the social sciences during the Pro-gressive era, child welfare organizations turned away from their alliance with animal welfare ones in favor of a more scientific and less emotional approach. Tem-perance groups precipitously lost influence after the repeal of Prohibition and tended to stick to lecturing about the dangers of drunk driving and not characterize drink as the source of creeping moral degeneration and cruelty.

After World War Two animal advocacy appeals have separated into two overlapping stands, both somewhat more secular than the strong Christian “stewardship” basis of the early movement. One was still concerned with animal welfare and prevention of suffering of other fellow creatures. The second stressed animal rights to self determination and concerned itself with liberating animals from serving human uses, including dietary ones. Future directions for animal welfare are not clear, but environmental consciousness about human activity causing elimination of habitats is certainly growing, as is a recognition of the role of biological diversity in the functioning of ecologies and natural sustainability.